Loss and damage, 1.5 goal will be in climate agreementDate: 12 December 2015
Paris: The Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group feel optimistic about the content within the new draft text due at 11:30am CET on Saturday 12 December.
The LDCs have been negotiating in earnest alongside their ministers these last few days, often on three hours sleep or less, to try and keep the language dear to their nations within the text.
As the countries least able to adapt to climate change, and those who have least contributed to the problem, the LDCs’ key issues, which they feel confident will be balanced in the new text, include:
- Inclusion of the below 1.5 goal, relative to pre-industrial levels, alongside a clear pathway of how countries will deliver against it
- Ambitious commitments for communicating, maintaining and implementing mitigation targets, in five year cycles
- Separate, overlapping five year cycles for reviewing the implementation of mitigation and finance commitments
- Clear reference to ‘new and additional’ climate finance flows for mitigation and adaptation
- Recognition of the special needs and specific situations of the LDCs
- Establishment of a mechanism to address questions of implementation and promotion of compliance within the provisions of the agreement
- The anchoring of a mechanism to avert, minimise and address loss and damage
On the viability of the below 1.5 degree goal, Mr Giza Gaspar Martins, Chair of the Least Developed Countries Group said: “This is not about what is achievable, it is about what needs to be done. Even at 1.5 degrees, scientific consensus tells us very many of us will not be safe.”
The Group maintains its emphasis for recognition of the special needs and specific situations of the LDCs as enshrined within the Convention.
The LDCs wishes to see language based on article 4.9 of the Convention1 reflected within the text, to acknowledge the unique capacity constraints and vulnerability of the UN-recognised 48 poorest nations, if the Paris outcome is to be a success.
Giza said: “The LDCs expect a loss and damage mechanism to be anchored within the agreement, although we agree we must figure out how to deal with the valid liability concerns being expressed. There is a commitment from the Presidency and parties to resolve this in the final text, so we are confident that there will be consensus reached on this issue.”
Five year cycles must be kept in the final agreement2 to ensure rapid acceleration of individual and global ambition contained with the national climate plans, or Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), to ensure the world stays well below the 1.5 degree temperature goal.
Giza added: “The Least Developed Countries thank the COP Presidency for reaching out to groups for informal consultations. We trust that this transparency and inclusiveness will continue in the closing hours and that we will be included in all consultations and considerations until the adoption of the Paris climate agreement.”
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NOTES TO EDITORS:
- Please see Article 4.9 – the specific section within the Convention that addresses this status http://unfccc.int/cooperation_and_support/ldc/items/3059.php
- The LDC Group was crucial to establishing the negotiating body in charge of developing the new agreement – the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action ADP – in 2011 at the Durban COP-17.
Below are some 2011 snapshot figures on most and least wealthy LDCs, as well as highest and lowest emitters. For context, California – progressive on climate change – in 2011 reduced total annual CO2 levels to 111 million (tCO2e) and has an annual GDP total (US$ billions) of 1,960.153 in the same year.
|Nation||GDP total (US$ billions) annual|
|Most wealthy: Vanuatu||801.8|
|Least wealthy: Tuvalu||0.03832|
|Nation||CO2 emissions total (tCO2e) annual|